Abortion is the process of removing fetus or embryo to end pregnancy. As per the statistics around 56 million abortions are done every year. Before conducting an abortion, doctors perform a test called sonogram. It is used to detect whether a woman is pregnant or not?
A woman generally undergoes abortion due to following reasons: –
- Health condition of women such as cancer, heart disease,
- Rape or Incest
- Possible ill fetal health
- Unwanted pregnancy
In India as per the law, a woman can undergo abortion only within twenty weeks of pregnancy. However, for rape victims time period is of 24 weeks. If the woman is above 18 years in age she can undergo abortion without consent of anyone else. In case the female is minor i.e. below 18 years old then she needs a consent of any of her guardians.
Abortion are of two types namely: –
- Miscarriage- When an abortion occurs suddenly then it is commonly referred as miscarriage
- Induced Abortion- The abortion which performed purposely is known as induced abortion. It can be done either through intake of abortion pills or going under surgery.
In ancient times abortion was done using herbal medicines, sharp tools and other traditional methods. Nowadays Abortion is done using following ways: –
- Abortion Pills
- Clinical Surgeries
The most commonly used abortion pills are Mifepristone and Misoprostol. For getting pregnant, a female needs a hormone called progesterone to grow normally. Mifepristone blocks the growth of this hormone. Along with the pills patients are also given some antibiotics. On the other hand, Misoprostol is given to the patient after 24 to 48 hours. This pill leads to heavy bleeding and cramping leading to loss of fetus. Abortion pills are only effective within 10 weeks of pregnancy. Abortion pills are safest to use as there are less chances of getting infection and other health related issues.
Surgical Abortion- It is performed between 12 to 24 weeks of pregnancy counted from last occurrence of normal menstrual period. There are 2 types of surgical abortion viz Vacuum aspiration and dilation and evacuation.
In Vacuum aspiration abortion is done by gentle suction of embryo with anesthetic. It is safer and less painful than going under surgery using surgical tools.
Dilation and evacuation is performed during second trimester of pregnancy. It involves a combination of vacuum aspiration, dilation and curettage and the use of surgical instruments like forceps to empty the uterus of fetal and placental tissue.
Post abortion, normal menstrual periods starts within 4–6 weeks. For safety purpose and avoiding risk of abortion again use contraceptive pills during sexual intercourse. It is also advisable to avoid having sex at least 2 weeks after abortion. Also, patient should have a pregnancy test after 4 weeks of abortion to confirm that process has been successful and the patient’s body has return to normal functioning.
Side- effects- Dizziness, vomiting, retching, pain and infection in the pelvic area and so forth.
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